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Titlesort descending Definition
C1-Esterase Inhibitor A protease inhibitor which prevents spontaneous activation of the complement system, as well as parts of the lectin pathway, and proteases of the fibrinolytic, clotting, and kinin pathways. A deficiency of C1-esterase inhibitor causes Hereditary Angioedema.
Cancer A term used to describe diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control. Cancer cells can invade nearby tissues and can spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body.
Cell-Mediated Immunity Immune defense in which T-lymphocytes come in close proximity with their victim cells, as opposed to humoral immunity which is provided by the secretion of antibodies into the blood or lymph (humors) by B-lymphocytes.
Cervical Dystonia A syndrome of involuntary sustained of spasmodic muscle contractions of the head and neck, resulting in abnormal posturing or jerky movements of the head. Cervical dystonia is sometimes treated with botulinum toxin injections into the affected muscles.
Chemotherapy Drug therapy for the treatment of cancer.
Christmas Disease Disease in which the blood does not clot properly, also called Hemophilia B. It is caused by a deficiency of blood coagulation Factor IX. The disease is an X-linked trait and occurs in males. It is so named because the first patient with the disease to be studied in great detail was named Christmas.
Christmas Factor Blood coagulation Factor IX. Also known as Plasma Thromboplastin Component (PTC). In the blood clotting process, CF activates thromboplastin. Deficiency results in Hemophilia B, or Christmas Disease.
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Chronic leukemia marked by an abnormal increase in B-lymphocytes. It is characterized by slow onset and progression of symptoms, including anemia, pallor, fatigue, appetite loss, lowered granulocyte, platelet counts, gamma globulin counts, and enlargement of lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. More common in older men. May be treated with IVIGs.
CLL See: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Clotting Factors The proteins that are needed to make blood clot.
CMV See: Cytomegalovirus
Coagulation Clotting of the blood. The process in which blood is changed into a jelly-like substance to seal or plug an injured blood vessel. Hemophilia patients have less of the necessary blood coagulation factors necessary to seal a wound. Coagulation of blood occurs in two pathways - intrinsic (activated by negatively charged substance, such as a collagen at the site of a wound) or extrinsic (activated by tissue thromboplastin within a tissue). These two pathways differ in the beginning stages, but share a common pathway for the final clot formation.
Coagulation Factor The factors that participate in the blood coagulation process. Over 30 types of cells and substances contribute to blood clotting. There are a large number of terms that have been applied to coagulation factors, but the generally accepted terms, as well as Roman Numerals , are included here.
Combined Immunodeficiency Immunodeficiency in which the patient has a deficiency of both B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes.
Complement System The complement system is a group of proteins in the blood with immune functions. Through a complex cascade of biochemical interactions, complement can act to protect the body in several ways: complement can cause a foreign cell to burst open and die; it can mark a foreign cell for destruction by a macrophage; and it can result in inflammation and stimulation of the B-cell-medicated immune response. Complement remains inactive in the blood until activated through one of several pathways. Deficiency of any of the more than 35 proteins involved the complement system may result in an increased susceptibility to infection. Deficiency of specific complement proteins has been linked to certain autoimmune diseases, increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, and certain hereditary conditions.
Congenital Describing a condition present at birth.
Contraindication Any symptom or circumstance indicating the inappropriateness of a form of treatment that would otherwise be advisable.
Coumarin A chemical compound which can be extracted from plants. This compoud is a component of the anticoagulant coumadin, which is frequently used to inhibit blood clotting.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) A disease that affects the central nervous system. It is a spongiform encephalopathy, meaning that as the disease progresses, it forms holes in the brain. It results in rapid and progressive loss of muscle control, dementia, memory loss, hallucinations, speech impairments, and difficulty walking and talking. There is no cure for CJD, and it is always fatal, usually within a year of onset. CJD is believed to be caused by a type of prion, a proteinaceous infectious particle that is responsible for several diseases of the central nervous system. CJD affects adults, especially older adults, with an average onset of 50 years of age. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) is caused by a similar prion and has related symptoms, but affects a much younger population, with an average age of onset in the mid 20's. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, or mad cow disease, is thought to be caused by a prion similar to that of CJD and vCJD. No connection has been found between mad cow disease and CJD, but it has been linked to cases of vCJD in which the patients ate infected cow meat.
Cryoprecipitate A blood plasma derivative product that is rich in coagulation factor VIII and also contains fibrinogen, factor IX, factor VIIa, and von Willebrand's factor. The preparation process involves warming frozen plasma to separate out the desired portion.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) One of a group of species-specific herpes viruses. They inhabit salivary glands and cause the enlargement of epithelial cells. Though found in a large portion of the human population, it causes disease only in utero (resulting in abortion, stillbirth, or various congenital defects), but can also be opportunistic in immune-deficient patients. People who have been exposed to the virus will remain cytomegalovirus IgG positive.
Cytomegalovirus Prophylaxis Preventative treatment in CMV-positive patients. Treatment with IVIG to control CMV, allowing the body's own immune system to deal with other infections.