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Titlesort descending Definition
Idiopathic Without a known cause.
IgA Immunoglobulin A - The principal antibody type in external bodily secretions such as saliva, tears, sweat, respiratory and intestinal mucin, and breast milk. IgA provides local immunity against infections in the gut and respiratory tracts by preventing the attachment of viruses and bacteria to mucosal epithelial surfaces. Its presence in colostrum helps to protect a newborn from infection.
IgD Immunoglobulin D. The class of antibodies found only on the surface of B lymphocytes, which function as antigen receptors to initiate differentiation of B-cells into plasma cells.
IgE Immunoglobulin E - IgE plays a major role in allergic reactions. It is produced in the lungs, skin, and mucous membranes, and attaches to mast cells in the respiratory and intestinal tract. About half of the patients with allergic diseases have increased IgE levels.
IgG Immunoglobulin G - The principal immunoglobulin in human serum. It is the major antibody for antitoxins, viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other foreign particles. IgG facilitates the phagocytic destruction of these antigens by agglutinating them, opsonizing them or by activating the complement system against them. IgG may be administered to provide temporary resistance to hepatitis or other diseases. IgG has a low molecular weight, and is thus the only gamma globulin able to cross the placental barrier, providing immune protection to the fetus before birth.
IGIV See: Intravenous Immune Globulin
IgM Immunoglobulin gamma M - The class of antibodies found circulating in the blood, and first to appear in initial response to exposure to an antigen (before IgG). IgM is highly efficient in stimulating complement activity. The human red cell isoantibodies which control the A, B, O blood groups are IgM antibodies. IgM has a very high molecular weight and is unable to cross the placental barrier to the fetus.
IMIG See: Immune Globulin-Intramuscular
Immune Deficiency A condition in which some component of the body's immune system is weak or absent, resulting in a decreased or compromised ability to respond to infection.
Immune Globulin - Intravenous (IGIV) See: Intravenous Immune Globulin
Immune Response An integrated bodily response to a foreign antigen, neutralizing or eliminating the invading substance, and preventing damage. The response is mediated by lymphocytes which recognize the antigen as "non-self" through antibodies specific to each antigen.
Immune System The complex group of organs and cells that defend the body against infection or disease.
Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) Also known as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. This is a condition of immune origin which results in lowered blood platelet count (thrombocytopenia) and excessive bruising (purpura). Platelets are destroyed by antibodies. Bruising results in purplish-looking areas of the skin and mucous membranes (such as the lining of the mouth) where bleeding has occurred as a result of the decreased number of platelets. Some cases of ITP are caused by drug use; others are associated with infection, pregnancy, or immune disorders. In about half of all cases, the cause is unknown (idiopathic). ITP is often related to HIV / AIDS. Also called purpura hemorrhagic or Welhof's Disease.
Immunoglobulin Subclasses of the gamma globulin fraction of plasma proteins, produced by plasma cells that have antibody functions, providing humoral immunity. All antibodies are immunoglobulins, but researchers have not yet determined whether immunoglobulins have antibody functions. Normally, globulins are present in human blood. It is used in passive immunization of immunosupressed patients exposed to various infectious agents. These are five classes of immunoglobulins: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM.
Immunosuppression A condition in which a patient's immune system is prevented from functioning normally. This condition may result from disease or tolerance , or it may be intentionally induced artificially through drugs or radiation in order to prevent rejection of transplants or to control autoimmune diseases.
Indication A sign or circumstance that indicates the proper treatment of a disease. Also, the specific medical condition that a medication has been approved to treat.
Influenza Vaccine Vaccine used to prevent the flu virus.
Infusion The therapeutic introduction of a fluid other than blood, such as saline solution, into a vein.
Inhibitors Antibodies produced by the immune system in response to blood coagulation factor in the treatment of hemophilia. The inhibitor binds itself to the infused clotting factor, making it difficult (if not impossible) to obtain a factor level sufficient to control bleeding.
International Units (iu) The amount of a standardized preparation that is agreed upon as an international standard. These units are defined by the International Conference for Unification of Formulae. Usually set by the quantity of a biologically active substance required to produce a specific response. Most factors are sized and priced by iu.
Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH) Also known as hemorrhagic stroke. ICH occurs when a blood vessel within the brain bursts, allowing blood to leak inside the brain. The sudden increase in pressure within the brain can cause damage to the brain cells. If the amount of blood increases rapidly, the sudden buildup in pressure can lead to severe neurological impairment, coma or death. The most common cause of intracerebral hemorrhage is high blood pressure (hypertension).
Intramuscular Within a muscle.
Intramuscular Immune Globulin (IMIG) This medication, administered within the muscle, is a sterile solution of antibodies extracted from health donors. It is used to provide protection (immunization) against Hepatitis A, measles, varicella and rubella infections. It is also used to boost the body's natural immune response in persons with immune system problems.
Intravenous Within a blood vessel.
Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG) Intravenous Immune Globulin - (IVIG or IGIV) A sterile solution of concentrated antibodies extracted from healthy donors which is administered into a vein. IVIG is used to treat disorders of the immune system or to boost immune response to serious illness, and to treat immuno suppressed recipients of bone marrow transplants.
ITP See: Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.
IVIG See: Intravenous Immune Globulin